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There are two fundamental architectures to access memory.

Von Neuman's Architecture

John Von Neumann's: One shared memory for instructions (program) and data with one data bus and one address bus between processor and memory. Instructions and data have to be fetched in sequential order (known as the Von Neuman Bottleneck), limiting the operation bandwidth. Its design is simpler than that of the Harvard architecture. It is mostly used to interface to external memory.